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We completely renounce any damages that may occur and all you do is on your's own responsibility.

For the impatient type goto point ¤ followed by B and C. But for the
careful type or beginner you can spare a lot of time by printing this out and read all steps of this page. If you do not understand all, just relax; it comes along the way.

When you choose Linux, many years in the future you'll keep a well-working computer that is ever upgraded with software at the 4 levels: Computers until 1998 text only computers & small servers -->1998-2002 office desktops: minimum 400MHz processor, 128MB ram ,2GB hard disk --> 2002-2006 simple multimedia with video editing minimum 1.0 GHz, 500MB, 10GB --> 2005-? Game computer min. 2.0 GHz, 2MB, 60GB, which are the absolutely most demanding ones. All variate and depend on the kind of computer - eg. laptop ram are faster. Of cause a game computer is usable for text-only and office work also, but I guess it's not your idea. 

Not all hardware is supported in Linux - though, it is now an exception to find unsupported hardware.
Normally, you do not need to buy new - just search the Internet if you get any hardware problems. Nevertheless, if you buy from new, you can be certain to find supported computers and supported hardware by clicking on this small Linux compatible hardware list. Otherwise just try it out and it use to work.

The following is _not_ nessessary but it is good peaces of advice throughout your installation:
  • If you got two hard disks place them in your computer from the beginning.
  • Connect and turn on all your equipment before you start - especially the Internet connection(s).
  • Choose your native language at once.
  • Install only what you need and no more. (Avoid to install from outside the repositories until you are skilled)
(If you are the kind that feel your's way, it is very important to redo the basic installation to your second hard disk too. So, you can try different possibilities and be able to restore your system easily - eg. by reestablish your .gnome or .kde where most of your set-up is saved. If anything goes wrong go to the rescue support or search the net for your error-messages.
Also when you know you'll take a risk trying something new - logout and login using English language as the possible error-messages are more easily found when you search for them - in google or elsewhere)

Here we start with and focus on Dapper, because the final version is already out June 2006 and it will last for 3 years on desktops (and 5 years on servers). There exist easy installation of special Linux distributions for old and new computers as seen in our Linux specialization page.  However below, we prefer the main Ubuntu project because it is very well-updated, optimizable for your needs and most easy to optimize. Do that before you may choose to replace your Desktop performence of Gnome / KDE with a simplified but more difficult window manager.
To get an idea of the general installation process click on the a bit outdated link Ubuntu-Linux installation

¤The most easy way to start the basic installation is to get a Linux-CD in your hand and go to an installation 'party' in a local LUG or if you are patient, receive a free CD in a letter to your door.
In stead, you can start your installation with high stability NOW if you download the resent stable version from Ubuntu and burn it on a new CD as an image. (If you dare you can here get the brand new but maybe unstable version of the day. For the burning process, you need to know howto burn CD from Windows or Linux = that is how to burn an ISO file: Use your favorite burning software and burn this .iso file to the CD or DVD by using a special feature in your software. You should be able to find a "Burn image to CD" option or "Burn CD iso image" option. You insert your new CD (or DVD) in your drive and then turn the computer off. Start it again with your CD and do your installation answering a few questions. Remember a DVD cannot be read by a CD drive even in Linux ;-) . Remember if not already done, you must change the BIOS to start with the CD (or DVD) by hitting a certain key right away when your computer starts. This key should be found in your screen if you read fast or read your manual. Otherwise, you can try common ones such as the Delete key, or F1, F2, F11 or a bunch of other of the Function keys. Now you change it to boot on CD and then restart your computer and answer a few questions (after deciding to install). 

Before you install more programs, you are better off by adjust your repository list to the one you find in our right collumn of our Linux Optimizations section. But choose your minimal needs of programs and do no more but keep your system upgraded for a while - look in the button under OBS.

If you want to install on a 'always' working or older PCs, you can start with installing the image of an Intel x86 ("i386") computer and then optimize for your maybe faster processor later. IF you do so, check if it works.

Before installing anything else write for later rescue this in a terminal*:

sudo dpkg --get-selections > packagelist.txt
#(<-that is backup of your program package list)
sudo dd if=/dev/hda of=bootsector.img bs=512 count=1 #(<-that is backup of your boot sector)

You are now ready to choose how much more programs you like to install:
A is the easiest one - but you let Scientific choose programs for you. B is marked for an easy way - quite "automatix" and can be used after point A.  C is the most controlled installation but manual solution. This is the starting level of the basic renovated computers facilitated by in China. From this stage a virus resistant and easy preserved operative system, a complete office package, an image editor, a general browser and a lot of minor programs are installed as default.

 : is in progress - that is our concept - and so the download directory is not yet ready. Please go to point B for now.
wget #Downloads the latest packagelist of
sudo dpkg --get-selections < phackagelist.txt #remove your default packagelist with the one of
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade # if you REGRET just
sudo dpkg --get-selections < packagelist.txt folowed by sudo apt-get update and sudo apt-get upgrade

From basic level you can go directly to optimization using: Automatix or you can choose the beginner-programs including edutainment and various language programs selected by
Start a terminal as written in the button under OBS. In this terminal you write the three lines followed by pressing Enter after each line:
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources_default.list 
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
#To know when it is updated look in
Then insert the following line in the buttom in the window appeared:
deb dapper main #and press the file and the save buttoms (presuming that dapper is your choise).
In a new or the old terminal write
wget #to get the installation script
gpg --import key.gpg.asc #to get the permissions
gpg --export --armor 521A9C7C | sudo apt-key add -
#to get it ready on your computer to install

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install automatix
automatix #some countries do not permit this step - you are on your own doing it!

C To find which applications you can install directly from Ubuntu click on programs available. To install further applications one by one of your needs we recommend in the beginning to choose a graphic program like the one you'll find at System-->administration-->synaptic. Use the categories or press the Search button and mark the programs of your choice. If you need any more of the numerous programs of Ubuntu-debians that exist, then you can look at the section where we do the optimization of the computer. A lot need to be installed before ALL is what you need just notice the Ubuntu-links with different kind of installation.

Provided you inserted & mounted the security hard disk**, the easy way to make a copy of what is right and to rescue later if you like. That is to copy the network set-up from this well-working other hard disk by writing in a terminal:
sudo cp /media/hda1/etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces if you have mounted the other drive in the mount-point /media/hda1/. If that is not enough copy the whole directory:
sudo cp /media/hda1/etc/network/* /etc/network/Rescue network set-up
Provided you inserted & mounted the security hard disk**, the easy way to rescue is to copy the network set-up from this well-working other hard disk by writing in a terminal:
sudo cp /media/hda1/etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces if you have mounted the other drive in the mount-point /media/hda1/. If that is not enough copy the whole directory:
sudo cp /media/hda1/etc/network/* /etc/network/Rescue network set-up
Provided you inserted & mounted the security hard disk**, the easy way to rescue is to copy the network set-up from this well-working other hard disk by writing in a terminal:
sudo cp /media/hda1/etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces if you have mounted the other drive in the mount-point /media/hda1/. If that is not enough copy the whole directory:
sudo cp /media/hda1/etc/network/* /etc/network/DVD: In your list you can get off-line applications through your Ubuntu CD (or better from a DVD) drive by writing in a terminal:
sudo apt-cdrom add
With Internet access you can install applications of your need. Some additional programs, you can get very easily through your desktop like KDE or Gnome menues. In Gnome choise: System --> Administration --> Add applications. In the beginning you may prefer a graphic program like the one you'll find at System-->administration-->synaptic. Press the Search button and search your needed programs).
Eg. if you need a planner for your projects search for planner. Mark it once and select it twice and thats it
Later you'll like even more programs. To do it and with better control you can choose your terminal*. More about that in man apt-get (/ to search and q to exit inside the manual pages) man dpkg. Take care - Ubuntu is a Debian but not all debian .deb packages work on Ubuntu and using e.g. Fedora-Linux .rpm can damage your system. So don't until you are very skilled. If you incist try checkinstall & autoapt in stead of "sudo make install" & ./configure. In case you take the risk with non-debian distributions & you are not extreme experienced try Klik

For that reason we suggest that you step to the next procedure optimization. Our other technical support pages later at: for a survey.

OBS: Independently if you go to the optimization step do learn to keep your system upgraded:
Do at least every month a click on the update bottom (or better accept the update suggestions when they come).
Start a terminal  
by pressing the Alt+F2 buttons simultaneously and write xterm (or choose programs-->system tools--> terminal) and write the bold characters:

sudo apt-get update (press the Enter button and write your password and press Enter again)
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade (
and press Enter again and yes to all (reasonable suggestions ;-))
If you want to read more about package (program) installation click on apt and dpkg
Al this sudo talk means that you work as administrator, which are sometimes needed. Eg. if you want to install through dselect or Aptitude or want to change file-privelegies or change file-owner in MC, you need to start-up by writing sudo dselect, sudo aptitude, or sudo mc.
Click here for another explanation of howto use basic commands

Created by Phillip Sc. Bøgh
Last modified 2006-07-29
(Info. from

Specialized and advanced install.
Click on the underlined links:

*Download a new DVD of Linux

*The installation from scratch can be carried out in a various of ways.

*Choise this for a 64 bit PC and this for a Mackintosh PowerPC

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